Petroleum Geology Laboratory

Petroleum Geology Laboratory is equipped with Shimadzu-QC 2010 GC with three detectors: FID, TCD and ECD, Perkn Elmer-Clarus 600 Series GC-MS, and FTIR.  The laboratory also has sample preparation facility prior to be analyzed on GC-MS and GC. 


Table1.1. The characteristics of FID, ECD and TCD detectors available in Petroleum Geology Laboratory for Shimadzu QC 2010 GC



Carrier Gas

Selection of compounds

Detectability limit

Dynamic Range

Flame Ionization (FID)

Mass Flow

He or Hydrogen

Organic compounds (C10-C44), chloroflorocarbon
Suitable for carbon and hydrogen compounds but cannot be used for non organic compounds. 
GC-FID cannot be used to determine high volatile or non volatile organic compounds. 

100 pg/sec


Thermal Conductivity (TCD)




500 pg/ml


Electron Conductivity (ECD)



Halogens, sulfur, nitrogen compounds

0.5pg Cl/sec, 2 pg S/sec, 4 pg N/sec






Table 1.2. The differences and similarities between GC-MS and GC-FID


Perkin Elmer-Clarus 600 Series GC-MS

Shimadzu QC 2010 GC-FID

Types of compounds

semi-volatile and non volatile organic or non organic compounds with molecular weights >50 compounds (containing the functional groups sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen) were investigated and gave the following trend in stability: S>C>N>O, -CH3, -CH2, and -CH2-O- bridges between aromatic structures takes place.

Characterize volatile and semi volatile organic compounds,
gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-C7) with molecular weights <100, C6 alkane (hexane) will exhibit an FID detector response similar to that of a C6 aromatic (benzene).

Types of samples

Rock, soil, sediments, liquid, oil, plant extract, protein, fatty acids, lipids etc

Rock, sediments, soil, liquid, oil, plant extract, etc

Detector type

Mass spectrometer

Flame ionization detector

Compounds identification

Universal and sensitive, provide information about the structure of the molecule.

FID is considered universal detector for oxidizable carbon compounds. Very sensitive, detection limits 50 ppb


From GC/MS chromatogram, the types of hydrocarbon present in a sample are identified and also determine the concentration of these hydrocarbons in the sample.

GC/FID chromatogram only provide peak area which has to be compared with the standard, it does not provide quantitative information about the sample.


The equipment also used for pyrolysis

The equipment could be used for gas analysis such as CO2

Kind of sample analyzed

Require pure sample

Detect multiple molecules which have the same retention time to travel through the column




General specification of FTIR


Michelson Interferometer (30o incident angle)

Beam splitter

Germanium-coated KBr plate for Middle IR

Light source

Air cooled ceramic for Middle/Far IR


DLATGS detector with temperature control for Middle/Far IR

Wave number range

7800-350 cm-1


0.5,1,2,4,8, 16, cm-1 (Middle/Far IR)

S/N ration

40,000:1 and higher


The relevant industries using FTIR are biochemistry/biotechnology, defence, food and beverages, pharmaceutical, semiconductors, lighting, etc.  
The uses of FTIR are:

  • Identify the functional group or molecular structure of organic and inorganic compounds present in a test mixture. 
  • It is also used for identification of material present in powder, liquid and solid samples.
  • It quantify the C-H bond, O and H in Si.


Shimadzu IR Prestige-21 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)


Lab Incharge: Dr. Samina Siddique